Nikhith Thomas – On Musical Reproduction (Exchange-Object and Use-Object)

“Music Culture and Society”. Scott.B.Derek.Oxford Univesity Press.Print.
Until 1925 Jacques Attali through his essay analyses on how radio during its early stages of radio broadcasting made it impossible for the still growing record and broadcasting industry to acquire legal rights on a product that they had created. Since the industry then hadn’t known on how to operate rashly sold of their copyrights to the radios to gain popularity and momentum only to later realize that this decision was in error. He begins the essay by saying that the record usage then was found to be minimal due to the bad quality and transmission which was due by placing the “Microtransmitter close to the phonograph’s acoustical horn” that resulted in a bad transmission (Attali Jacques,213). But since then the disadvantages were overcome through electrical recording and the use of better waxes that helped in the invention of pickup and also the allowed the direct transmission of the record. Record companies freely distributed their artists work at the beginning however as time passed the record broadcasting voiced their complaints through the voices of music publishers, artists and manufacturers demanding the copyrights of these records that were broadcasted on the radio.
The authors at the beginning did not say anything as they felt that it was a good publicity exposure for them but however later they released this tension may lead to the audience to lose their interest in radio and would once again go back to live performances and that the whole public broadcasting would be a private consumption and that the markets would shrink (Attali,213) . The Music publishers who were the ultimate problem makers who sold the scores to the radio musicians soon found out that they held one most common element that exercised their rights above the record broadcasting whistle blowers and that was the reproduction rights. Since the artists saw that they hadn’t held such rights their places of work in their view started to shrink while the record manufacturers also feared that they would soon be out of the business due to the declining amount of record sales also since they were liable to the radios based on two legal points that omitted their presence in the market to publish or sell new records unless they got a legal approval from the radio companies. These record companies only held the mechanical reproduction of the records in the first instance as pointed out by Attali and secondly the reproduction of such records was limited to only produce and not be covered or sold off to any other company or form, thus this made it impossible for the record companies to oppose radio broadcast which was considered a form of representation that they could neither invoke copyright law or claim unfair competition on their product that has already been used. The problem was solved in the latter part of this chapter. (Attali,213).

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