Béhague, Gerard. “Bridging South America and the United States in Black Music Research.” Black Music Research Journal 22.1 (2002): 5-11. Web.
According to anthropologist Jorge de Carvalho (1994, 30), some of the musicians and singers of these styles “have associated themselves openly with the various black movements.” In addition, funk musicians have frequently commented in their songs on the racial situation in Brazil and expressed black pride openly. (Behague 7) The second half of this article talks about the significance of Black musicians in the history of United States and how that in turn, not only has an impact on their identity formation but also economical, geo-political and other facets that impact identity-formation.
…1980s, is the ready assimilation of some of the most typical African-American music genres of the period, namely rhythm and blues, funk, rap, and hip hop. However, the assimilation did not carry, in most cases, the original African-American sociopolitical messages despite obvious affinities with the “black aesthetic (Behague 7) In the year 1970s and 1980s through the genre popular music, boundaries between South America and United States were now traversing. Beyonce in her music album explores socio-political image and state of the woman folk. In her song ‘Sorry’;she along with the Tennis player, Serena Williams and other women are dressed in an aboriginal fashion. They have make up of symbols, yet are seen to wear modern attire. Serena Williams is also the center of attraction. She is dancing which in itself brings about a change in how women from the various fields in sports are depicted.
A musical anthropologist “looks at the way musical performances created many aspects of culture and social life … [and] studies social life as a performance…. examines the way music is part of the very construction and interpretation of social and conceptual relationships and processes.” Thus, the emphasis on performance should bring to light some of the points of convergence in a possible Pan-Afro-African-American aesthetic. (Behague, 10) Through the visual album, we see many transitions. Women through their attire and body movements use metaphors and have given an ode to overcoming hardship, turning things around, and triumphing over adversity.