The Living Indian Languages – People’s Linguistic Survey of India; Volume 1; The Being of Bhasha – Introduction. Page No. 1 – 5
Chief Editor – G.N Devy; ISBN: 9788125054887; Published by – Orient Black Swan ltd.
Urbanized way of life becoming a threat to the ancestral Indian Languages. The rise in the depletion of our ancestral Indian Languages and also paving easy way to enter our vernacular system are the global languages, being termed as the layman’s language. ‘These global languages or ‘mega-languages’ have become or are being perceived as a threat to the local languages (Lukanovic 2010; Meierkord 2012)’. Also the idea of nation-state, wherein it’s the duty to preserve language for national unity, is giving emergence to sub- national languages. These major sub- national language are basically regional languages, wherein there is a migration of other local languages of the same region.
The author further explains the meaning attributed to language as to ‘how meaning gets into language gets into meaning and how the ‘getting into’- the transmigration – causes transformation’ (Devy 01) it is said that through this process, meaning is derived in language. The crux and the essence of the language is stated to be in the meaning of the language and its delivery.
Also the author emphasis on the fact that be it any period of time ranging from the Mauryan period, to the post-renaissance scholars, to the current day contemporary modernists, manifestation of language happens according to various frameworks. Adding to that, it is also said that ‘history’ is the sole logic of language progression and how ‘genius’ is the soul of a language (Devy 2).
Devy then highlights on the study of Braggs and Freedman 1993 that ‘Over the last two decades, scientists have come up with mathematical mode for predicting the life of languages’ (Devy3). There is a serious threat to the human linguistic heritage on extinction. Among 600 only small portion of diversity will continue to exist in twenty second century. There is no understanding of the actual survival of the language. This depicts a metaphor to a mass murder, here of languages.
All in all the chapter till now deals will the various aspects and the threats caused to language, leading to its extinction. The remaining chapter deals with the collective spaces that nurtures the any particular language and also the diversity of languages. On the same lines it describes as ‘space of Indian languages not as a graveyard of languages but as a language forest, a Bhasha Vana’ (Devy 5).
To think about being a writer, sets back on a lane of memories back into the past. To me a writer is someone who can first and foremost pen down his thoughts, it need not be a perfect piece of art, but maybe just how someone paved his way to write down about things around him. To call myself a writer then might have been the primary section essays, where describing the favorite rose was rewarded.
My earliest memory to write something down was there was this write bee competition in the 3rd grade. I loved reciting poems, but never had written down anything except the small ten lines essays in the English exam. We were given a set of twenty key words and told to form a story out it. I just formed a mere story of a duck, and a happy moment though.
Eventually writing grew as promoted to higher classes, during the high school the best of my papers were always English, they were a fun to write. Essays, stories, letter writings etc. each gave a new imagination in a different way.
Writing then was divided into types of writings, as entered the grad class. It was report writings, perspective writing, argumentative writing and autobiographical writing and so on…I preferred the perspective type of writing. During the grad class I have interned at a newspaper. There I had to do report writings, interview writings and also writing on a particular issue with our own perspective. There is this magazine I at times write as a freelancer, sometimes poems or just some articles with a personal lookout to things.
Writing has been going on since then, recently I write as a blog writer for a travel website called Checkintsory. Writing is something I personally like and would love to make a career out of it.
By – Jamie Emil Flege TESOL quarterly Vol 15, No 5 (Dec 1981) pp 443 – 455 Published by – Teachers of English to speakers of other languages Source – www.jstor.org
Flege primarily argues here that the acquisition of a foreign language is really an age related dimension. Does the level of acquisition of a foreign accent decreases with the increasing age?
Existing studies of L2 pronunciation, however, do not seem to support the claim that there is some fundamental difference between children and adults in phonetic learning ability.(Flege 443)
When as an adult it becomes hard to get the perfect foreign accent. “Never seem capable of ridding themselves entirely of foreign accent” (Scovel 1969:245) whereas on the other hand children learn to recognize the accent with an ease their speech lacks any trace of the foreign accent of people who learn the language later. This results into a comparative study of Critical Period Hypothesis. It occurs due to the biological terms as neurophysiological maturation where the brain membrane gets matured with the growing of age. The adult brain undergoes reorganization during puberty and therefore the Second Language Learning (SLL) accent is hampered.
Foreign language pronunciation from various perspectives and the living environment….
- There is a discussion of dimension of foreign accent which has occurred from the acoustic basis.
- Children and adults capacity of acquiring a phonetic language differs fundamentally.
A foreign accent is acquired due to differences in the pronunciation by native and non native speakers. This leads to the foreign accent mispronunciations, “French I sink so and Arabic I park my car in the barking lot” ( Felge 445)
However not necessary that the perception of a foreign accent is based on overtly detectable mispronunciation of sound, there are also other biological factors to it. The rest of the articles deals with the different types of accent acquisition and also the articulation for the perfect accent sounds.