Hardman, Michael L. “Incidental learning in the mentally retarded: A Review”. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded 10.1 (1975): n.pag. Web. 23 June 2016.
This research aims to make the retarded children learn incidentally. Since they are not comfortable with all the environments. By introducing various tasks he makes the retarded children learn incidentally. A child learning incidentally outside the classroom depends on its capacity. He found that retarded children show poor performance when compared to the normal children because they are poorer in incidental learning. There are a lot of difference in child’s performance in a classroom situation and incidental learning situation. The high motivational level motivates the retarded children thus they perform well in the classroom. Goldstein and Kass researched and found that retarded children are equally performing well compared to normal children. But they fail in their accuracy level when the task is complex. They also say that when the task is more complex the short term memory loss is more evident in them. He also experimented this with four children, two retarded and two normal children. After many tasks, he found that retarded children lack in accuracy and older retarded child perform well than the younger child. So, at last, he says that a special teacher can make changes in a retarded child to learn incidentally. The teacher should be aware of new methods and techniques to improve the opportunity to learn incidentally. The learner will learn rapidly if the learner is familiar with the learning materials. The teacher should give effective classroom activities. They could introduce more games rather than the traditional method of learning because the games method will improve their incidental learning. They can also use audio-visual methods to improve the incidental learning. They can teach things through the audio-visual method so the retarded children will learn easily. The author says that the special educator teacher should experiment with these methods and techniques to teach them hence it will improve their incidental learning. If the retarded children learn incidental learning then they are aware of another process of learning which elevates them.
Swensen, Lauren D. “Processes of Language Acquisition in Children with Autism: Evidence from preferential looking”. Child development 78.2 (2007): n.pag. Web. 16 June 2016.
This research answers the question; Do children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and typical children acquire language in the same way? To examine them the researcher has looked into different methods of evaluating. First, he has done product-and process-oriented research on the language acquisition of children with ASD. In this research, he found that children with ASD are able to produce the sentence with an SVO pattern as a typical children do. To find this he has applied a new method called“Intermodal preferential looking” (IPL) for studying language acquisition in ASD children. Tager-Flusberg and her colleagues analyzed the speech of six boys with ASD and found that they don’t have problems in grammatical development. The reason behind is found that these boys are previously engage in more and longer episodes of joint attention with their mothers. Then he finds a new method for studying language in children with ASD. That is, they played side-by-side videos and made the children to watch it. The linguistic audio paired with the object is played. The researcher filmed the child’s eye movement and later coded them. What do these findings reveal about language acquisition in children with ASD? Two processes of typical language development-comprehension preceding production and the noun bias have now been demonstrated to be present in language-learning children with autism. The limitation of this study is they failed to know the exact nature of each child’s language therapy and there is a dearth of specific information about the ASD children’s language interventions. Finally, they found that children with ASD acquires the language same as the typical children do. The reason for delay of language acquisition in some ASD children are due to social disinterest and lack of verbal dyspraxia rather than saying language disability.
Quirk, Frank B. “Language Acquisition in Children”. Elementary English 51.2 (1974): n.pag. Web. 9 June 2016.
Quirk engaged incompatibly in researching language acquisition in children. He introduced a new focus by unravelling the mystery of language acquisition. He says that there is a relationship between a child acquiring its first language (mother tongue) and the historical development of the language. He triggered by this idea when he heard the first year old child babbling which distracted him from his study of Anglo-Saxon pronunciation. He says that the evolution of a child’s language is a mirror image of the historical evolution of the language. To prove his thesis, he also talks about the “Jungian theory” and the biological concept of “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”. He also experimented this with a four year old child, Joshua, he asked the child to write down the alphabet and analyzed it with 2000 year old Greek alphabet to his shock it resembles the same. He also engaged privately with a group of children and found that their accent is similar to the ancient Celtic accent. when he tried to correct a child’s pronunciation he/she refused to pronounce in his way and he rushed to the dictionary and saw the pronunciation he was intellectually shocked that the child’s pronunciation is similar to the old French or old English. Another comparison is not only children read or write backward it is noted that our older version of the Indo – European language did have the convention first of writing backwards. “Recently, when I read an article I came to know that in schools they have introduced a new way in teaching methods.” A teacher supposed to teach backward writing of alphabets to the children. The reason is this practice makes them to increase their memory power. This method was not there when I did my schooling. I think this was the reason why our ancestors wrote backward in Indo – European languages. Quirk too investigated it years ago as an evolution of the child’s language and historical language. I doubt if his statement is true, then what happens in the evolution of the historical language when the child grows older. Why it happens only in children, especially when they acquire their first language?.