Nikhith Thomas – On Musical Reproduction (Exchange-Object and Use-Object)

“Music Culture and Society”. Scott.B.Derek.Oxford Univesity Press.Print.
Until 1925 Jacques Attali through his essay analyses on how radio during its early stages of radio broadcasting made it impossible for the still growing record and broadcasting industry to acquire legal rights on a product that they had created. Since the industry then hadn’t known on how to operate rashly sold of their copyrights to the radios to gain popularity and momentum only to later realize that this decision was in error. He begins the essay by saying that the record usage then was found to be minimal due to the bad quality and transmission which was due by placing the “Microtransmitter close to the phonograph’s acoustical horn” that resulted in a bad transmission (Attali Jacques,213). But since then the disadvantages were overcome through electrical recording and the use of better waxes that helped in the invention of pickup and also the allowed the direct transmission of the record. Record companies freely distributed their artists work at the beginning however as time passed the record broadcasting voiced their complaints through the voices of music publishers, artists and manufacturers demanding the copyrights of these records that were broadcasted on the radio.
The authors at the beginning did not say anything as they felt that it was a good publicity exposure for them but however later they released this tension may lead to the audience to lose their interest in radio and would once again go back to live performances and that the whole public broadcasting would be a private consumption and that the markets would shrink (Attali,213) . The Music publishers who were the ultimate problem makers who sold the scores to the radio musicians soon found out that they held one most common element that exercised their rights above the record broadcasting whistle blowers and that was the reproduction rights. Since the artists saw that they hadn’t held such rights their places of work in their view started to shrink while the record manufacturers also feared that they would soon be out of the business due to the declining amount of record sales also since they were liable to the radios based on two legal points that omitted their presence in the market to publish or sell new records unless they got a legal approval from the radio companies. These record companies only held the mechanical reproduction of the records in the first instance as pointed out by Attali and secondly the reproduction of such records was limited to only produce and not be covered or sold off to any other company or form, thus this made it impossible for the record companies to oppose radio broadcast which was considered a form of representation that they could neither invoke copyright law or claim unfair competition on their product that has already been used. The problem was solved in the latter part of this chapter. (Attali,213).

Nikhith Thomas:Music Production and Consumption

Music Culture and Society”. Scott.B.Derek.Oxford Univesity Press.189.Print.

In an article written by Constant Lambert in “Music Ho!” An Opposition was set to regard what is considered as ‘Real Music’ in 1930’s and a popular binary was set to regard what was considered as ‘Real Music”. The popular binaries were mapped onto a thought of being ‘high brow’( listening to symphonies and operas) or ‘low brow’( listening to dance bands and cinema organs). Thus Paddy Scannell studied the implications this divisions had for the BBC Music department who perceived the need to educate and develop the taste the taste of the general public.

“The Recording Angel” by Evan Eisenberg was considered to distinguish recording live music to claim that “Phonography” deserves to be considered as an art like form like film rather than being considered a poor relation. It becomes an art form because it exploits its creative potetional to manipulate sound by freeing it from social frames such as public concert performances.Bach may not have thought he was composing ‘Musical Works’ and most of jazz and popular music wouldn’t have been conceived this way.

“So much of what Michael Jackson did in music doesn’t seem like the work of a mere mortal”. Pitchfork,2009.

“Jacksons stroke of inspiration was to fuse black RnB and white rock something that is now routine, but had not at that point been attempted by a big name pop act”. The Guardian,2009.

On Popular Music and Post Modernism

On Popular music and Postmodernism”. Goodwin Andrew. Scott.B.Derek.Oxford University Press.221. Print.

Under post modern perspective we are now living in an era where distinctions between art and mass culture has collapsed. Within the field of contemporary popular music the process of selection, exclusion, celebration and demigration was used by critics, fans and musicians themselves in ways to continue to sustain the operations of forms of cultural capital. In particular there remains a tendency to identify ‘serious’ acts who subvert and undermine the fields of pop respectively in mainstream pop such as (Pet Shop Boys/ New Kids on the Block), Soul ( Michael Jackson/Prince), rock ( Sonic Youth/U2), heavy metal ( Def Leppard/Metallica) and rap (Public Enemy/Mc Hammer). The brufest of conversations with almost every fan of one of the above acts would confirm the arguments about art v/s trash remains rampant within today’s Pop.

Nikhith: Micheal Jackson as a cultural phenomenon

Cambridge Companion on gospel and blues music.178.Cambridge university press.2002.Print

Michael Joseph Jackson was born on July 29th 1958 is considered as an important element in today’s popular American music. As an artist who started off with what we call ‘black music’ which then had taken shape to form early disco and pop music had borrowed various styles and forms from American music such as instrumentation, costuming and a manner of delivering a particular song. What the black community in large wanted to obtain was perhaps be or imitate the whites in the closest manner possible that’s why many a white musicians were imitated by the blacks itself such as Frank Sinatra’s song “cry me to the moon” was later imitated by the Jackson’s in later years. What Michael Jackson did was to imitate and perfect the white American’s to an extent where he would define such a style as his own and had achieved to do so.

Michael Jackson the most famous of Gordy’s Protégé’s came to symbolize the combination of white and black, pop and soul elements and was perhaps a product of Gordy’s attitude. Jackson “The King Of Pop”, left Mowtown records for Epic records in 1976 and with his surgically created white features superimposed on gospel and blues elements created a massive crossover appeal highlighted his dancing style and videos adorned by his marriage and divorce to Elvis Presely’s daughter and his purchase of the Lenon-Mc cartney songbook..