Dyslexia is a developmental disorder which has varying symptoms depending on the varying age groups it affects. In most cases dyslexic children have difficulty in relating the sound structure and written form of words or letters. Increasing spacing between letters can be used to facilitate faster reading in children with dyslexia. Reading speed is related to the critical spacing between the letters called crowding. To conclude, a study reveals that the longer the word, the more does spatial attention benefit the reader.This article is relatable as the research is about english second language acquisition in dyslexic children.



McCandliss, Bruce, D. “Helping Dyslexic Children Attend to Letters within Visual Word Forms.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109.28 (2012): 11064-1065. Web. 23 June 2016.




Visible and invisible aspects of language ability

In this chapter, Amritavalli discusses the factors to be considered in acquisition of language. Every language confirms to a certain universal grammar. During the process of second language acquisition, a shift from universal grammar to a particular grammar occurs. This option of the shift results in errors in L2 acquisition.

According to Amritavalli, a linguist sees the mistakes committed in language acquisition as ‘differences’. The persistence of differences in non-native contexts is called fossilization which can stem from the “unnaturalness” of a particular linguistic system which is in a state of transition. Second language acquisition in general employs restricted code semiotic systems which are considered ‘right ‘ and ‘differences’ are not easily tolerated. This impairs the learner’s ability to learn the language by pairing meaning which on the contrary happens in natural language acquisition where ‘differences’ are tolerated

Moreover, in multi lingual communities is confusing as the L1 of the speaker might have the influence of other languages. Hence there is no single speaker who completely represents a linguistic community. However, the article falls short in arriving at a conclusion regarding who is a native speaker and doesn’t convince the reader of the influence of multilingualism in second language acquisition.

Amritavalli,R.”Visible and Invisibe Aspects of Language Ability.” Indian English.Ed. Agnihotri Rama Kant and Rajendra Singh.N.p: Orient Blackswan, 2012.23-32.Print.

Rukma Anil -The Language Classroom: Roles, Relationships and Interactions

Hall, Graham. “The Language Classroom: Roles, Relationships and Interactions”, Exploring English Language Teaching: Language in Action, (3-19). Routledge. Print.

The chapter explains the requirements and aims of an ELT classroom that meets the needs of parents, students and the society(3). Also it looks into the ways of teaching and the way teachers and students look at the ways of teaching English.

Also the author explains the need of a teacher’s experimentation with assumption of various roles that might influence the teaching methods in classrooms(9). Also the article explains as to how teachers have to take up classroom interaction between teachers and students to eliminate errors through interactive learning. Instructions are also given as to how learners have to apply the skills acquired through various learning methods and techniques applied in class to learn the language.