Sharma, S. L. “Perspectives on Indians Abroad”. Sociological Bulletin, 38.1. 1-22. 1989. Print.
The article mainly discusses the perspectives of the world on NRIs and diaspora from India living across the world. Also it looks into how in different ways they are explained in the written works about them. The author classifies diasporic writing into three types namely, Historical, Diplomatic and Anthropological (Sharma 4). However the author does not include the literary works of diaspora as a distinguished classification but later refers to them as an analysis of an outcome of close study of history and anthropology of the community.
The article claims that most of the writings are “country specific profiles”. It means that most writings of diaspora deal with either frustration or anxiety about either their homeland or the newly migrated country. As this is a postcolonial concept the writings seem to procure a sense of nationalism from the readers through projecting the problems of diaspora using a colonial lens (Sharma 8). For instance, most of diasporic literary works depict the anxiety of a diaspora community to return to their respective homelands, which is portrayed using the colonial impact which had forced them to move out and lead them to such a state.
Also the article attempts to explain the difference between the “colonial way and the nationalist way” (Sharma 11). As per the colonial way, Indians had to leave the country to meet their economic needs and to find better fortunes to escape the torture and oppression of the colonisers. In other cases were sent in exile as political refugees or taken forcefully as labourers which were no less than a life as a slave. These varied reasons also depend on the economic well-being and the native intelligence of the countrymen. Often, the educated and the well to do moved abroad to settle in Europe during colonisation. Every sixth man in the world population is said to have Indian origin. Such influences also affect the native Indian way of thinking which makes Indian tradition evolve with a blend of colonial elements throughout.
Speaking of adaptation, there are three modes which include, “assimilation” which is to identify themselves among the new country’s traditions as stand outs, “cultural preservation with economic integration” which is to ensure that their cultures from the homeland prevails with the same intensity. In most situations the cultural practises change as per the social institutions and laws of the country. Economic integrity and stability also affects the preservation of culture as the hierarchies within Indian communities based on descents prevail even outside India. “Ethnic politicisation for power cultivation” is to prove the strength of the community in the country as to gain political importance like the Tamils in Malaysia who share equal importance in the country’s politics as the native Malay population. Such external factors have a strong impact on the original Indian way of thinking but leads to different new perspectives and origin of hybrid cultural phenomena which has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Daniel, Jemima. “Development of Indian Diaspora”, International Journal of Mathematics Trends and Technology,2.1. August,2011. Web.
Thilakarathne, Indeewara. “Cultural Scene: Arvind Adiga and Diasporic Writing”. http://www.sundayobserver.lk, September 2010. Web.
The articles study the concerns of Indian Diaspora and there development in a new social setup with no comprise on their anxiety about looking back at India and there roots in it (Jemima 2011). Yet there lies a desire to reclaim their past but are stalled by the inability to move out due to personal commitments, profession and other linkages which are convincing to accept the new land as their home. Rudimentary level of diasporic writing in Indian English deals with the personal feelings of the author such as the loss of motherland, heritage and their situation so as to find a way of relating to their original identity (Thilakarathne 2010). Reflections of their faint memories on their native societies and their cultural experiences become the foci of Indian diasporic writing in English.
Also Thilakarathne in his article speaks vividly of how they struggle to retain their cultural citizenship which actually leads them to design a new hybrid form of their native society that is a merging of their native society with the adopted one. For instance diaspora have to celebrate their native festivals abiding to the norms of their migrated society so as to lead a ‘Roman in Rome’ life. Speaking of Arvind Adiga’s works Jemima points out to a new approach he has adopted as a diaspora which is to move away from the rudimentary way of expressing te anxiety of homelessness to portray the real conditions of the country which is slightly controversial and yet remains untold and unquestioned. She rightly says:
“Generally how a diaspora writes about his/her motherland is for his/her nation or fame or money; do they portray the real conditions of India or their imaginations about India remains a question.”
However both the studies fails to examine how Adiga himself has successfully etched out the reality of India through his novel ‘The White Tiger’, in spite of mentioning it. They address him as a diaspora with not reference to on what regards has he explained his anxiety about motherland or on the way tries to hold on to his original identity as an Indian. On the other hand the authors also say Adiga has portrayed so as to explain what most diaspora fear on thinking about returning to India and settle down. Leaving away all the contradictions both the articles explain how diasporic writing has gone up to another level from the usual aspects of homelessness and identity crisis.
Chakraborty, Sutirtha. “Search for the Roots of Indian Diasporic Writing”, International
Journal of English Language, Literature and Humanities. 3.4(2015). Web. 9 June 2016.
The article looks into the roots of migration of Indians to foreign nations due to various “pull in and pull out factors” as “indentured workers”(2) and free passage travellers looking for a better future in the twentieth century. Hence the author also asserts that most of the late 20th century literature is that of exile and migration due to political upheavals and colonisation(4). Also the reason behind considering the diaspora as endangered is explained saying that in spite of being a voluntary shift, there lies a tension in the pathway of cross cultures and chances of problems regarding acceptance between the source and target cultures exist. The author also cites examples from Indian diasporic writers like Rushdie and Naipaul where their anxiety about having a identity crisis is explained.
Citing Pasanjape, the article addresses the diaspora as “Global Citizens”(11), who can combine the values of the native nation and the target nation to form a hybrid identity which is also cited from Dingwaney’s “An Illustrated History of Indian Literature, about the cross cultural influence.